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Jumat, 15 Januari 2010

Conditional Sentences/ Kalimat Pengandaian (If and Unless)

Conditional Sentence/ Kalimat Pengandaian
If and Unless (unless = if + not)

Bagaimana cara menggunakan if dan unless dalam kalimat? Tenses apa yang harus dipakai dan untuk kondisi apa?

Conditional sentences could be categorized as such: Factual, Predictive and Speculative
(Kalimat konditional dalam bahasa inggris dapat dibagi menjadi 3: Factual, Prediktif dan Speculatif)

This type is used to state facts: scientific fact, something that is true or happen in a regular basis etc.. (Digunakan untuk menyatakan fakta: fakta ilmiah, kebiasaan dll)

Use present tense in both clauses for factual conditional sentence that is still valid at the time of speaking(gunakanlah present tense untuk kalimat factual jika yang dibicarakan masih berlaku sampai saat ini)
If water reaches to 100 deg C, it boils. (Jika air mencapai 100 C, air akan mendidih)
If Jane opens her door in the morning, her dog runs inside immediately (Ketika Jane membuka pintu di pagi hari, anjingnya selalu segera masuk)


Three types of speculative sentence: (tiga macam bentuk kalimat spekulatif:)
The First ConditionalThings that are likely to happenhigh probability
The Second ConditionalThings that are not likely to happenlow probability
The Third ConditionalThings that could never happenzero probability
(because the opportunity is gone)

The First Conditional - High Probability
Present TenseFuture Form
If it rains,I will take a taxi home
If he comes,I will give him the book
If she receives her yearly bonus,she will buy a new shirt


This type is used to express the following: (Digunakan untuk menyatakan sbb:)

  • what happen in the future (apa yang akan terjadi di masa depan)
  • possibilities (kemungkinan-kemungkinan yang dapat terjadi di masa depan)

The Second Conditional - Low Probability
Past Tense(would, could, should, might)
If all my classes were cancelled tomorrow,I would accompany you.
If he got a perfect score in his math,he should buy us all dinner.
Unless I got 3 month bonus,I would not go to Europe travelling.

To state or suggest something that is very unlikely to happen.
Ex: If all my classes were cancelled tomorrow, I would accompany you.

The chances that all classes will be cancelled tomorrow is very unlikely. But it might happen altough you could be 97% sure that they will not be cancelled.

(untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang kemungkinan terjadinya sangat kecil
Contoh: Jika semua kelas saya dibatalkan besok, saya akan menemani kamu

Kemungkinan bahwa semua kelas akan dibatalkan sangatlah kecil. Tetapi siapa yang tahu bahwa mungkin saja hal ini bisa terjadi walaupun 97% kemungkinan besok kelas berjalan seperti biasa)

The Third Conditional - Zero Probability
Past Perfectwould have + past participle
If I had saved more money last year,I would have bought a new laptop now.
If he had changed the lock to his room,the buglar would have difficulty breaking in.
If I were a billionare,I would have donated a million to the poor.

*When using "I", use "were" for conditional sentences.
wrong: If I was a president...............
correct: If I were a president..............

(*jangan pernah menggunakan "was" untuk subject "I" di kalimat pengandaian, selalu gunakan "WERE". I were. He were. We were)

Exercise 1

  1. If you __________ (study) harder, you could score better in TOEFL.
  2. If I _____ (be) a king, I would rule wisely.
  3. If he _____ (spare) a bit of his salary, he will be able to buy new shirt by next month.
  4. If the traffic had been less crowded, I _________ (arrive) at the meeting on time.
  5. Unless you give your workers minumum wages, they __________ (continue) their strike.
  6. If water ______ (cool) to 0 deg C, it _______ (freeze).
  7. If my parent ________ (alive) today, they would have been very proud.
  8. If you sleep earlier everyday, you ____________ (not, have) difficulty waking up in the morning.
  9. If you had read the instruction carefully, you _____________ (not, damage) your computer.
  10. Unless he takes his job seriously, he ________ (not get) his promotion.
  11. If my parents ______ (give) me some money, I might go to visit your town next holiday.
  12. Unless my fieldtrip ______ (get) canccelled tomorrow, I would have to prepare the report by the day after tomorrow.

Exercise 2

Study each situation here. Create a sentence using conditional that is appropriate for the condition described

Situation 1:
Darren entered his room and found his roomate, Jack, looking frustrated.
Darren: What is going on with you Jack?

Jack: I have this calculus exam in two days. I have been sick last week and missed a lot of classes. So I am kind of behind the topic now.

Darren: _________________________________________________

Fill in the blank above what should Darren say to his roomate to encourage him.
Hint: practice, succeed

Situation 2:

Steve has been playing games too much for the past few weeks. Today he realized that tomorrow is a very important math exam. He is too stressed because he could not understand anything.

Steve: Tom, I am really frustrated with the math exam tomorrow.

Tom: It is good that you finally realized that you need to study. I have noticed you playing that new video games almost non-stop.

Steve: If I _________________ (play) less, I ___________________ (not be) so stressed now!

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