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Senin, 18 Januari 2010

Subject-Verb Agreement

Basic rule of subject-verb:
  • Countable
    • Singular - Use Singular Verb
      An apple is priced at $5.00
    • plural - Use Plural Verb
      Two apples are priced at $7.00
  • Uncountable - always use singular very

    Water is very important if you want to survive.




    Identify which is the subject

    The effects of the terrorist attack are seen even today.subject: effects - plural
    Noun1 + and + Noun2
    The apples offered by Jane are very crispy and delicious.
    subject:apples - plural
    Two nouns joined with the following:
    • together with
    • as well as
    • accompanied by
    • with/along with
    The first noun is the subject
    His boss and colleague encourage him to open a bakery.
    Danny and Jane invite you to their wedding.

    His mother as well as his friends encourages him to study engineering.

    The english professor, together with his assistants, is going to attent the seminar
    subject: boss+colleague(plural)
    subject: Danny and Jane (plural)

    Subject: His mother (singular)


    Subject: The english professor (singular)
    With certain expression of quantity:
    some of, two thirds of, most of, a lot of, lots of, ninety percent of

    depend on the noun that follow
    Some of the book is boring.
    Some of the books are boring.

    A lot of equipment is purchased.

    A lof of machines are damaged during the riot.



    Subject: Equipment (singular)

    Subject: Machines(plural)
    "There is/ are" depends on the noun that follow
    There is nobody

    There are many books on the table.




    who, which, what ...
    He is the president who approves the new law.

    I want a computer which is very light and portable

    She is one of my teachers who punish me all the time
    president(singular) - approves

    a computer(singular) - is


    my teachers(plural) - punish







    Some Subject is Always SINGULAR
    Indefinite pronouns:
    one, each every, everyone, everybody, somebody, no one, nobody, anyone, either, neither
    Everyone is required to wear a shoe.
    No one is going to receive special treatment.

    Either of the men is lying.
    Neither of the boys is telling the truth.
    The following collective nouns:
    equipment, machinery, furniture, ammunition, installation, electricity, information, advice, feedback, software, advertising, mail, postage, update, education, housing, nutrition, pollution, contamination, conservation, clothing, foods, health, manpower, leadership, evidence, justice, violence, peance, tolerance, honesty, reliability
    Violence has always resulted in destruction.

    Electricity is very unstable in certain remote regions.

    The furniture is dirty.
    The equipment needs to be replaced.
    Some nouns end with -s, but they are singular:
    news, economics, politics, statistics, mathematics, physics, the United States
    Statistics is the most hated subject in collage.

    Physics has been my interest.

    The news is boring.

    The United States does not tolerate the use of drug.
    The number of + ........
    The number of people is 1000.

    Anything about money, time and distance
    One dollar is a lot in some countries.

    20 dollars is too much for that kind of item.

    One mile is easy to run.
    Two miles is quite easy.

    10 minutes is all the time I need to fix the problem.
    Two nouns that naturally comes together:
    Bread and butter, Bed and breakfast
    Fish and chips is my favourite snack.

    Bed and breakfast in that county costs only $70.




    Some Subjects are Always SINGULAR
    Indefinite pronouns:
    one, each every, everyone, everybody, somebody, no one, nobody, anyone, either, neither
    Everyone is required to wear a shoe.
    No one is going to receive special treatment.

    Either of the men is lying.
    Neither of the boys is telling the truth.
    The following collective nouns:
    equipment, machinery, furniture, ammunition, installation, electricity, information, advice, feedback, software, advertising, mail, postage, update, education, housing, nutrition, pollution, contamination, conservation, clothing, foods, health, manpower, leadership, evidence, justice, violence, peance, tolerance, honesty, reliability
    Violence has always resulted in destruction.

    Electricity is very unstable in certain remote regions.

    The furniture is dirty.
    The equipment needs to be replaced.
    Some nouns end with -s, but they are singular:
    news, economics, politics, statistics, mathematics, physics, the United States
    Statistics is the most hated subject in collage.

    Physics has been my interest.

    The news is boring.

    The United States does not tolerate the use of drug.
    The number of + ........
    The number of people is 1000.

    Anything about money, time and distance
    One dollar is a lot in some countries.

    20 dollars is too much for that kind of item.

    One mile is easy to run.
    Two miles is quite easy.

    10 minutes is all the time I need to fix the problem.
    Two nouns that naturally comes together:
    Bread and butter, Bed and breakfast
    Fish and chips is my favourite snack.

    Bed and breakfast in that county costs only $70.



    Some Subjects are Always PLURAL
    staff, personnel, police
    The staff are working together to solve the problem.

    The police are on the way here.
    A number of ....
    A number of people do not have proper housing
    The following nouns referring to general group of people: the rich, the educated, the sick, the poor,
    The poor are given free food yesterday.

    The rich are richer in third world country.



    Some Subjects denpend on the context
    the following nouns:
    board, committee, company, management, family, jury, audience

    If the sentence show that they are in unity, they are considered as singular.
    The family have different tastes in food.

    The family works together to fix the house.

    The management are in arguement against one another.

    The management is doing well with the hotel.
    Some nouns become uncountable
    Some nouns become countable
    Sound travels faster than cars.

    Crime does not solve your economic problem.
    Sounds of laughter fill the room as the comedian appear.

    His crimes are serious




    Exercise 1

    1. East Indies (refer/refers) to Indonesia today.
    2. The jury (is/are) unable to make decision.
    3. Some of the furniture (is/are) damaged.
    4. The statistics (is/are) not accurate.
    5. A number of houses (was/were) destroyed during the hurricane.
    6. Everyone (is/are) terrified by the dictator.
    7. There (is/are) a lot of criticism in the new movie.
    8. Some of the machinery (is/are) rusty.
    9. The rich (has/have) always received special treatment in my country.)
    10. Neither of the witnessess (is/are) willing to testify.
    11. One of the houses in that new area (is/are) mine.
    12. Two-thirds of the student (is/are) hospitalized after eating contaminated food.
    13. The number of students at the meeting (is/are) twenty.
    14. 30 minutes (is/are) all the time needed to fix the broken radio.

    Exercise 2

    Sleep apnea ______ (be) a commong sleeping disorder. A number of adults ______ (be) affected. There _______ (be) three different types of sleep apnea. A number of factors __________ (contribute) to this disoder. Children _____ (be) also at risk of getting one.

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